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Capella 4060 Assessment 3

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    Capella 4060 Assessment 3

    Capella 4060 Assessment 3 Disaster Recovery Plan

    Student Name

    Capella University

    NURS-FPX 4060 Practicing in the Community to Improve Population Health

    Prof. Name

    Date

    Disaster Recovery Plan

    Hello, everyone; welcome to my presentation on the Disaster recovery plan. My name is ——, and I am a registered nurse, working at Valley City Regional Hospital for the past three years. In this presentation, I will take you back to two years when the train derailment incident occurred. The devastating oil tanker derailed in Valley City resulted in mass casualties and several injuries to people. As the oil contaminated drinking water, a prompt order of city evacuation was commanded to prevent further harm in the public. We learned about this incident through a telephone call and immediately busied ourselves in preparation.

    Some of the pitfalls of our disaster recovery efforts in that situation included; shortage of staffing, lack of adequate communication, and lack of structured disaster recovery plan. Considering poor management and disaster preparedness, revising the disaster recovery plan is crucial to manage future catastrophic events better. The main goal of this disaster recovery plan is to lessen health disparities and improve access to community services after an unfortunate devastation. 

    Determinants of Health and Relevant Barriers Impacting Disaster Recovery Efforts

    The determinants of health are an interconnected array of elements that impact an individual’s or overall community’s health outcomes and well-being. These elements correspond to social, economic, environmental, and behavioral circumstances. Considering these factors is essential in developing a disaster recovery plan and addressing the safety and health of the Villa Health Community. These include age, gender, races, education level, health literacy, occupation, income, physical environment, access to care, and lifestyle choices (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022). The median age of Valley City dwellers is 43.6 year with a major ethnic population of White people being 93 %.

    Additionally, about 204 elderly people of Valley City are suffering from complex health condition an 147 natives are handicapped. Considering the physical environment, Valley City has limited homeless shelters and cannot facilitate whole homeless population. Moreover, the Valley City lacks financial stability and has prevailing bankruptcy. The city’s renowned Valley City Regional Hospital is restricted to accomdate only 105 in-patients and has outdated ambulances. The hospital’s infracstructure and equipment is old and needs overhaul.    We will discuss some significant cultural, social, and economic barriers that influence disaster recovery efforts and the safety and health of the community.

    Cultural Barriers to Safety, Health, and Disaster Recovery Efforts

    The cultural barriers, including cultural norms and beliefs, profoundly impact disaster recovery efforts, safety, and the community’s overall health. Cultural beliefs of treating diseases with traditional medicines and herbs may extend the healing process. Such beliefs may hinder the process of medical treatment during distasters/emergency situations, leading to delayed intervention, impacting the health and safety of the individuals. Moreover, these cultural beliefs hinder disaster recovery efforts due to persistent negotiation and non-willingness to acquire prompt treatment, causing further delays in treating other affected community members.

    Other cultural barriers are related to mistrust of healthcare systems, which obstruct immediate care delivery. Furthermore, some community members may speak cultural languages, which can hinder access to healthcare information and services, causing treatment delays and impacting the health and safety of community members (Rouhanizadeh et al., 2020). In Valley City, a number of migrant population faced language as a communication barrier since they lacked english proficiency due to being a second language. This resulted in poor communication and delayed treatments which impacted disastser recovery efforts.  

    Social Barriers to Safety, Health, and Disaster Recovery Efforts

    Social factors like poor connections to social networks and healthcare disparities due to socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic factors are some of the prevailing barriers to safety, health, and disaster recovery efforts. Lack of social support and social isolation can cause individuals to access emotional and financial support with difficulty during disasters. This can result in more harm, impacting the safety and health of disaster-affected individuals. Moreover, social isolation can hinder disaster recovery efforts when individuals do not seek social support. Other social barriers include lack of education, racial and ethnic disparities, and social stigma to acquire certain medical and health services, such as mental health for post-traumatic stress disorder. Insufficient health literacy prevents people from seeking healthcare services timely, leading to delayed treatments that reduce patient safety and increase the chances of poor health outcomes (Kermanshachi et al., 2019). 

    Moreover, the existing racial and ethnic disparities impact disaster recovery efforts as equitable access to care is limited. This also impacts the safety and health of patients as they are considered minor and may acquire delayed treatments and interventions, causing patient harm. The minorities of Valley City consisting of 3% Latino, 2 % African-American, 1% Native American and 1% others  faced health disparities as the White population acquired healthcare treatments on priority. Moreover, the Valley City’s disabled population was poorly facilitated as they confronted communication barrier due to language issues. The disabled people used lip-reading and american sign language, which healthcare professionals were unable to comprehend and lacked interpreters as well. These barriers hindered disaster recovery efforts as well as safety of community dwellers.  

    Economic Barriers to Safety, Health, and Disaster Recovery Efforts

    The economic barriers, including financial constraints, limited educational opportunities, and poor employment and work conditions, influence safety, health, and disaster recovery efforts. High healthcare costs, low income, and lack of health insurance may lead to limited access to care. This can pose safety and health hazards to the population, leading to further complex health conditions and high mortality rates. Additionally, job insecurity, unpaid sick leaves, and vulnerable work environments can also impact the health of affected individuals.

    Lastly, limited access to education due to financial constraints has a perpetual impact on socioeconomic disparities and limits health literacy. Financial constraints lead to inadequate medical services and facilities, hindering disaster recovery (Kermanshachi et al., 2019). The Valley City had a looming bankruptcy as it was facing severe financial constraints. The hospital’s limited healthcare and medical services due to restricted finances could not deliver care treatment to all suffering people which resulted in health disparities and impacted disaster recovery efforts. 

    The determinants of health and the factors (cultural, social, and economic) are not individualized but interconnected to each other. For instance, socioeconomic status has combined social and economic factors that impact access to education (social factor), health literacy, and employment opportunities (economic factor). Similarly, cultural beliefs (cultural factors) can shape health behaviors and impact the community’s overall health as they can affect access to culturally sensitive healthcare services (social factor). Hence, these determinants of health must be considered wholly, as one factor can aggravate or hinder the impact of another factor. 

    Proposed Disaster Recovery Plan  

    The proposed disaster plan is based on the MAP-IT framework. This will provide a keen insight into reducing health disparities and improving access to services. The MAP-IT framework comprises Mobilize, Assess, Plan, Implement, and Track. This approach is designed considering the factors that impacted health, safety, and disaster recovery efforts in Valley City after the train derailment incident. This approach will be executed as follows:

    • Mobilize: First, all the relevant stakeholders will be engaged, and a meeting on disaster recovery will be conducted. The relevant stakeholders will include healthcare professionals such as physicians, nurses, and pharmacists; governmental organizations like the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA); and non-profit organizations working for disaster management such as the American Red Cross and The Salvation Army.
    • Assess: All stakeholders will collaboratively assess the community’s health needs, considering the current determinants of the health of Valley City. These health needs can be related to language, such as requiring sign language or braille system for the blind and deaf and English proficiency requirement. Moreover, need for specialized care methods for managing chronic care patients and enhancing access to care for the disabled, such as increased wheelchairs and staff assistants. The gathered workforce will strategically assess these community needs along with the budget analysis to meet these needs. 

    Capella 4060 Assessment 3

    • Planning: Considering the needs of the community and budget analysis, this planning will include equitable resource allocation and setting SMART goals that will be realistic and attainable. The resource allocation will be done in such a way that it aligns with the objectives, critical areas will be focussed first. For instance, elderly patients with chronic diseases and disabled will be catered first to save their lives. The specific goals will be reducing mortality rates by providing emergency First-Aid services to the most vulnerable people. Additionally, the specific goals include providing shelter and food to the homeless people with no belongings. 
    • Implement: In this step, the proposed plan will be executed in tangible actions, and effective disaster recovery efforts will be performed accordingly. These tangible actions will be providing care treatment to injured population and providing homeless shelter and food. The quality of food and water should be clean as train derailment incident led to water contamination that could potentially harm further population including children and elderly.
    • Track: This step will involve ongoing evaluation of current practices and matching the progress with established goals. Further improvements will be driven based on the evaluated results. The evaluative methods will comprise evaluating efficiency of allocated resources and time it takes to restore critical systems. Moreover, population survey will be conducted to identify number of remaining homeless people and taking community feedback can give adequate idea of efficiency of disaster recovery efforts.

    Diminished Health Disparities and Enhanced Access to Community Services

    The proposed disaster recovery plan can potentially diminish health disparities and promote enhanced access to community services based on social justice and health equity principles. The disaster recovery plan promotes equitable access to healthcare regardless of socioeconomic status, racial and ethnic disparities, and immigration status. Moreover, the healthcare services provided will be tailored to the unique needs and preferences of diverse cultural and ethnic groups. This will be done by ensuring the healthcare workforce delivers culturally competent care. For this purpose, adequate workforce training on delivering culturally competent care will be ensured before disaster management (Méndez et al., 2020). 

    Furthermore, the proposed disaster recovery plan will recognize trauma experienced by disaster survivors and provide trauma-informed care where PTSD care and mental health support for all deserving patients will be provided. Additionally, policy advocacy will be initiated to promote health equity and social justice, such as measures to reduce poverty, improve education, and expand healthcare access for rural and underserved populations (Ndumbe-Eyoh et al., 2021).

    Addressing discrimination and biases through policy implementation and training programs will lead to social justice within individuals, families and communities. Moreover, healthcare professionals will be aware of their biases to overcome unintentional disparities toward particular races, genders, and cultures. This will promote social justice and cultural sensitivity in delivering care treatment (Marcelin et al., 2019). The principles of social justice and health equity are grounded in a proposed plan through these strategic ways and ensure that all individuals have a right to acquire primary healthcare during a disaster regardless of any discrimination and disparities.

    Impact of Health and Governmental Policy on Disaster Recovery Efforts

    Various health and governmental policies are enacted on disaster recovery efforts that provide relief support after disaster and promote the resurrection of the community post-havoc. One such governmental policy is the Disaster Recovery Reform Act (DRRA) 2018. This governmental policy introduced several critical disaster preparedness, response, and recovery reforms. It brought valuable changes to disaster management through pre-disaster mitigation strategies, flexible funding, and streamlined project review. Moreover, this act changed Public Assistance Program Reforms, supporting a proactive approach to disaster management and recovery planning. Furthermore, it established disaster resilience incentives focusing on Community Lifelines for communication, transportation, and healthcare (Wirasakti, 2022). 

    Another governmental disaster management and recovery policy is the Disaster Mitigation Act (DMA) of 2000, which advocates improving disaster mitigation efforts nationwide. It promotes disaster preparation by identifying risks, vulnerabilities, and appropriate strategies for natural and man-made disasters. Another provision of this Act includes post-disaster mitigation assistance, which enables communities to utilize federal funds to implement hazard mitigation projects and prevents the recurrence of similar damage in future events (Samuel & Siebeneck, 2019). These provisions profoundly impact disaster recovery efforts in a systematic way. 

    Logical Policy Implications for Community Members

    The logical policy implications for community members will include:

    • Due to the DRRA’s focus on proactive disaster management and recovery planning, community members will be actively engaged in the development and updating of recovery plans.
    • Because of the funding that is received by DRRA, community leaders will engage with governmental agencies such as FEMA to acquire funds for pre- and post-disaster mitigation programs.
    • The policy of Disaster Mitigation Act (DMA) enables community members to be better informed about vulnerabilities and future hazards through pre-disaster mitigation programs. 
    • Adequate medical and healthcare services will be available for community members after unfortunate incidents due to beforehand planning as per the DMA promotes post-disaster mitigation assistance. 

    Evidence-Based Communication and Interprofessional Collaboration Strategies

    In every unfortunate disaster event, prompt management and emergency healthcare services are required, which may often be hampered by fragmented communication. To improve disaster recovery efforts, it is crucial to maintain seamless communication among interprofessional team members. Therefore, community organizations must adhere to evidence-based strategies that surpass communication barriers and ameliorate  interprofessional collaboration.

    Strategies to Overcome Communication Barriers

    • Establish transparent and clear communication protocols that describe the roles and responsibilities of all team members and understand the chain of command during disaster recovery (Khan et al., 2020). Head of the team must show proactiveness and immediately altere efforts and roles according the needs of the time. Communication pattern should be strong and clear. 
    • Using plain and easy-to-understand language can help all team members overcome language barriers, enhancing mutual understanding (Piller et al., 2020). Medical jargons and difficult to comprehend terminologies should be avoided. 
    • The team members should utilize technology for prompt communication and data sharing through communication apps such as Microsoft Team, Slack or Zoom that provides unified communication platform (Khan et al., 2020). 

    Strategies to Enhance Interprofessional Collaboration

    • Appointing liaison officers and leaders as points of contact between different discipline groups to coordinate resources and resolve interagency conflicts (Brown et al., 2022). Leaders should be trained to accept diversity and various expertise of different members. 
    • Promote interprofessional training and education on disaster response and management to enhance team capabilities, roles, and limitations (Flanagan et al., 2023). The training and education sessions will include members from multidisciplinary team including healthcare professionals, emergency agency personnel, local governmental officials and communication and IT specialists.  These members will be provided education on cross-training to understand each others’ roles. Moreover, they will be trained on risk assessment, effective resource allocation, making informed decisions in emergencies and tracking. Additionally, communication strategies will also be discussed that enhance collaboration among interprofessional team members. 
    • Conduct interprofessional disaster response and recovery exercises and simulations to enhance collaboration and coordination in a community setting (Murray et al., 2019).

    Implications and Potential Consequences of Proposed Strategies

    The implications of proposed strategies will be coherent and coordinated disaster recovery with optimized resource allocation. Moreover, better communication will enhance efficiency in disaster recovery by streamlined processes and reduced duplication of efforts. Additionally, enhanced collaboration and communication will reduce response times and faster assistance to disaster-affected communities. Lastly, community engagement will be ameliorated as community members are actively involved leading to enhanced trust between affected populations and responders and improved outcomes.

    Conclusion

    The train derailment incident in Valley City led to mass casualties and injuries, followed by poor management of disaster and recovery. This called for a prompt change in the disaster recovery plan at Valley Regional Hospital. The proposed disaster recovery plan consists of MAP-IT approach that can reduce health disparities and enhance access to care. The DRRA and DMA are governmental policies on disaster recovery and management that impact disaster recovery efforts. Lastly, strategies to eliminate communication barriers and improve collaboration must be substantiated and practiced to improve disaster recovery efforts.

    References

    Brown, M. R., Fifolt, M., Lee, H., Nabavi, M., Kidd, E., Viles, A., Lee White, M., & McCormick, L. C. (2022). Disaster preparedness: An interprofessional student incident command system simulation. Journal of Interprofessional Education & Practice, 27, 100507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xjep.2022.100507 

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Social determinants of health. https://www.cdc.gov/about/sdoh/index.html 

    Flanagan, S. K., Sterman, J. J., Merighi, J. R., & Batty, R. (2023). Bridging the gap, how interprofessional collaboration can support emergency preparedness for children with disabilities and their families: An exploratory qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 23(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-023-15580-4  

    Kermanshachi, S., Bergstrand, K., & Rouhanizadeh, B. (2019). Identifying, weighting and causality modeling of social and economic barriers to rapid infrastructure recovery from natural disasters: A study of hurricanes harvey, irma and maria (University of Texas at Arlington, Ed.). ROSA P. https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/66181 

    Khan, A., Gupta, S., & Gupta, S. K. (2020). Multi-hazard disaster studies: Monitoring, detection, recovery, and management, based on emerging technologies and optimal techniques. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 47, 101642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101642 

    Capella 4060 Assessment 3

    Marcelin, J. R., Siraj, D. S., Victor, R., Kotadia, S., & Maldonado, Y. A. (2019). The impact of unconscious bias in healthcare: How to recognize and mitigate it. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 220(2), 62–73. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz214 

    Méndez, M., Flores-Haro, G., & Zucker, L. (2020). The (in)visible victims of disaster: Understanding the vulnerability of undocumented Latino/a and indigenous immigrants. Geoforum, 116, 50–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2020.07.007 

    Murray, B., Judge, D., Morris, T., & Opsahl, A. (2019). Interprofessional education: A disaster response simulation activity for military medics, nursing, & paramedic science students. Nurse Education in Practice, 39, 67–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2019.08.004 

    Ndumbe-Eyoh, S., Muzumdar, P., Betker, C., & Oickle, D. (2021). “Back to better”: Amplifying health equity, and determinants of health perspectives during the COVID-19 pandemic. Global Health Promotion, 28(2), 175797592110009. https://doi.org/10.1177/17579759211000975  

    Piller, I., Zhang, J., & Li, J. (2020). Linguistic diversity in a time of crisis: Language challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. Multilingua, 39(5). https://doi.org/10.1515/multi-2020-0136 

    Rouhanizadeh, B., Kermanshachi, S., & Nipa, T. J. (2020). Exploratory analysis of barriers to effective post-disaster recovery. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 50(1), 101735. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101735 

    Samuel, C., & Siebeneck, L. K. (2019). Roles revealed: An examination of the adopted roles of emergency managers in hazard mitigation planning and strategy implementation. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 39, 101145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101145 

    Wirasakti, G. (2022). When disaster strikes: An analysis of the widening socioeconomic disparities caused by federal relief efforts. Journal of Animal & Environmental Law, 14, 83. https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/jael14&div=14&id=&page= 

    Capella 4060 Assessment 3