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NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Applying Ethical Principles

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    NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Applying Ethical Principles


    Capella university

    NHS FPX4000 Developing a Health Care Perspective

    Prof. Name


    Addressing Ethical Challenges in Healthcare

    Healthcare organizations globally grapple with a myriad of issues that demand ethical considerations. These challenges, often labeled as ethical dilemmas in healthcare settings, arise from conflicts between various moral values, necessitating the involvement of ethical committees to propose solutions (Giannetta et al., 2021). This article delves into an ethical case study sourced from Capella University’s Library.

    The Ethical Case Study – To Vaccinate, or Not?

    This ethical case study revolves around a newborn, Anna, at a Community Hospital. Anna’s parents, the Smiths, decided against childhood immunizations for her based on information gathered from online sources, particularly mommy blogs. They expressed concerns about the risks of vaccinations, citing examples like the purported link between vaccines and autism. Dr. Kerr, Anna’s pediatrician, attempted to persuade the Smiths to vaccinate Anna, presenting literature supporting the benefits of vaccines. Despite Dr. Kerr’s efforts, the Smiths remained steadfast in their decision, turning the situation into a moral quandary for the doctor.

    Assessment of Facts from the Case Study

    The case study highlights several pertinent factors, including parental refusal, concerns about vaccine side effects from unreliable online sources, medical evidence supporting vaccine benefits, and the concept of communal good.

    Parental Refusal

    As indicated in the case study, parental refusal, as observed with the Smiths, is a global phenomenon contributing to low vaccination rates. The World Health Organization notes that millions of unvaccinated children die annually due to parental perceptions (Saeed & Hashmi, 2021), emphasizing the importance of addressing vaccine hesitancy.

    Harmful Effects of Vaccines

    Contrary to concerns raised by online sources, thimerosal, a component in childhood vaccines, is deemed safe by the World Health Organization. Research refutes claims of a link between vaccines, including those with thimerosal, and autism (Gabis et al., 2022). The study also points out the role of digital media in spreading misinformation, influencing parental decisions (Garett & Young, 2021).

    Positive Effects of Vaccines

    Dr. Kerr highlighted the positive impact of vaccines, citing a decrease in measles and Haemophilus influenzae cases. Global research supports this, indicating significant reductions in measles and Haemophilus influenzae type B cases due to routine vaccinations (Gastañaduy et al., 2021; Talbird et al., 2022).

    Communal Good – Herd Immunity

    Dr. Kerr emphasized the concept of herd immunity, stressing the ethical obligation to immunize healthy individuals to protect the immunocompromised. Research supports this, framing it as a “common good” (Rus & Goselj, 2021).

    Communication Approaches and Their Effectiveness

    The case study exemplifies effective patient/family education and a therapeutic rapport-building approach. Informed decision-making, facilitated by patient/family education, is crucial in healthcare. Additionally, building rapport, as demonstrated by Dr. Kerr, fosters trust and open communication (Lewandowski et al., 2021).

    Applying Ethical Principles

    Effective communication involves non-verbal cues like eye contact and tone, contributing to informed decision-making. Conversely, ignoring concerns or hastily agreeing without providing information is counterproductive (Vogel et al., 2018).

    Ethical Decision-Making Model

    The ethical decision-making model, encompassing moral awareness, moral judgment, and ethical behavior, aligns with Dr. Kerr’s approach. It underscores the importance of recognizing ethical issues, providing informed choices, and fostering morally fair decisions (Capella University, 2023; Haddad & Geiger, 2022).

    An Ethical-Based Solution to the Proposed Case Study

    Four ethical principles – autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice – guide healthcare decisions. Balancing parental autonomy with considerations for the public benefit, particularly through herd immunity, presents a nuanced solution. Family education programs can address misinformation, aligning with justice and communal benefit (Garett & Young, 2021). Ensuring non-maleficence and beneficence involves gaining the parents’ trust and emphasizing the positive impact of vaccines (Varkey, 2020).


    Vaccine refusal poses a prevalent ethical challenge in healthcare. Addressing this requires interventions, including robust patient/family education programs and research-driven strategies. Future efforts should focus on evidence-based approaches to effectively navigate this ethical dilemma.


    Ashby, B., & Best, A. (2021). Herd immunity. Current Biology, 31(4).

    Capella University (2023). Ethical Case Studies. Capella Library Online.

    Capella University (2023). Ethical Decision-Making Model. Capella Library Online.

    Fernández-Basanta, S., Lagoa-Millarengo, M., & Movilla-Fernández, M.-J. (2021). Encountering parents who are hesitant or reluctant to vaccinate their children: A meta-ethnography. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(14), 7584.

    Gabis, L. V., Attia, O. L., Goldman, M., Barak, N., Tefera, P., Shefer, S., Shaham, M., & Lerman-Sagie, T. (2022). The myth of vaccination and autism spectrum. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 36, 151–158.

    NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Applying Ethical Principles

    Garett, R., & Young, S. D. (2021). Online misinformation and vaccine hesitancy. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 11(12), 2194–2199.

    Gastañaduy, P. A., Goodson, J. L., Panagiotakopoulos, L., Rota, P. A., Orenstein, W. A., & Patel, M. (2021). Measles in the 21st century: Progress toward achieving and sustaining elimination. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 224(4).

    Giannetta, N., Villa, G., Pennestrì, F., Sala, R., Mordacci, R., & Manara, D. F. (2021). Ethical problems and moral distress in primary care: A scoping review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(14), 7565.

    Haddad, L. M., & Geiger, R. A. (2022). Nursing ethical considerations. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

    Lewandowski, R., Goncharuk, A. G., & Cirella, G. T. (2021). Restoring Patient Trust in healthcare: Medical information impact case study in Poland. BMC Health Services Research, 21(1).

    Paterick, Z. R., Paterick, T. E., & Paterick, B. B. (2020). Medical informed choice: Understanding the element of time to meet the standard of care for valid informed consent. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 96(1141), 708–710.

    NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Applying Ethical Principles

    Rus, M., & Groselj, U. (2021). Ethics of vaccination in childhood—a framework based on the four principles of biomedical ethics. Vaccines, 9(2), 113.

    Saeed, R., & Hashmi, I. (2021). Pakistan ranks third globally with the most unvaccinated children: Is the impact of parental perception and attitude on immunization an essential contributing factor to an unsuccessful vaccination coverage? Cureus.

    Slotte, P., Karlsson, L. C., & Soveri, A. (2022). Attitudes towards mandatory vaccination and sanctions for vaccination refusal. Vaccine, 40(51), 7378–7388.

    Talbird, S. E., Carrico, J., La, E. M., Carias, C., Marshall, G. S., Roberts, C. S., Chen, Y.-T., & Nyaku, M. K. (2022). Impact of routine childhood immunization in reducing vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Pediatrics, 150(3).

    Varkey, B. (2020). Principles of clinical ethics and their application to practice. Medical Principles and Practice, 30(1), 17–28.

    Vogel, D., Meyer, M., & Harendza, S. (2018). Verbal and non-verbal communication skills including empathy during history taking of undergraduate medical students. BMC Medical Education, 18(1).