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NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3 Picot Questions and an Evidence Based Approach

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    NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3 Picot Questions and an Evidence Based Approach

    Student Name

    Capella University

    NURS FPX4030 Making Evidence-Based Decisions

    Prof. Name


    PICO (T) Questions and an Evidence-Based Approach

    In the realm of healthcare research, the PICO (T) methodology functions as a framework for constructing and addressing clinical inquiries. PICO (T) encompasses Patient/Population/Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Time if applicable. It offers a systematic means of defining the key components of a potential study or investigation. The “P” denotes the patient or population under consideration, the “I” signifies the intervention being assessed, the “C” involves comparing interventions or controls, and the “O” points to the desired outcomes. Lastly, “T,” if relevant, pertains to the time frame over which the intervention’s effects are analyzed. This framework serves as a strategy for formulating research questions and guiding the search for clinical evidence, ultimately promoting evidence-based healthcare practices.

    Practice Issue of Type II Diabetes Management

    The investigation focuses on the management of Type 2 diabetes—a complex condition significantly impacting a substantial number of individuals globally, thereby exerting notable strain on both their quality of life and healthcare systems (Westman, 2021). To effectively address this issue, the use of a PICO (T) approach proves advantageous. This systematic framework streamlines the research process by honing in on pivotal facets of the concern. A PICO (T)-formatted research question could be: “In adults with Type 2 diabetes (P), does a lifestyle intervention program focusing on dietary changes and physical activity (I), compared to standard care (C), lead to notable improvements in hemoglobin A1C levels (O) over a 12-month period (T)?”. The reason this issue benefits from a PICO (T) approach is that it helps clarify and focus the research question, enabling the development of a more targeted research strategy to locate the most relevant evidence efficiently. This refined focus can result in high-quality research that is more likely to lead to improved patient outcomes and more effective healthcare policies and procedures.

    Identification of Sources of Evidence

    Various sources can provide valuable insights for addressing the PICO (T) question regarding the influence of lifestyle interventions on hemoglobin A1C levels in individuals diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Esteemed publications such as Diabetes Care, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and the Journal of the American Medical Association frequently release current, peer-reviewed studies on interventions for Type 2 diabetes. Authoritative governmental websites like the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and Clinical Trials offer valuable data on ongoing and successful studies related to lifestyle management in diabetes.

    Furthermore, databases such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, and CINAHL provide an abundance of pertinent studies for the inquiry. To assess the credibility and suitability of sources, the CRAAP test, evaluating Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose, proves to be an invaluable resource. This ensures that the sources utilized are current, pertinent, authoritative, accurate, and aligned with the intended purpose (Lowe et al., 2021). Combining the CRAAP test with the PICO question presents a beneficial strategy for healthcare professionals, ensuring credible and meaningful information leads to improved patient outcomes and enhanced quality of care.

    Findings from the Relevant Sources

    Research into the management of Type 2 diabetes has primarily focused on lifestyle interventions as a pivotal approach. An authoritative source in this regard is the American Diabetes Association (2020), providing valuable insights into programs centered around lifestyle changes targeting Type 2 diabetes. The article underscores the significance of structured interventions promoting modest weight loss, yielding notable enhancements in blood glucose levels among adults with Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, it advocates for increased physical activity to bolster glycemic control and overall well-being for this demographic.

    NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3 Picot Questions and an Evidence Based Approach

    Another pertinent contribution comes from Zou et al. (2020), furnishing evidence supporting the enduring advantages of lifestyle interventions for adults grappling with Type 2 diabetes. The research utilizes predictive models derived from data acquired from the Da Qing Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) and Diabetes Study, suggesting that lifestyle interventions may impact cardiovascular risks and indirectly reduce hemoglobin A1C levels. In related work, Yang et al. (2023) provide a comprehensive assessment of randomized controlled trials, indicating that interventions involving dietary modifications and physical activity lead to a notable decrease in HbA1C levels among overweight and obese individuals dealing with Type 2 diabetes, across various ethnic groups.

    Decision-Making on PICO(T) Question Using the Findings

    The findings from the chosen sources are highly relevant when making decisions related to the PICO(T) question. The information from the American Diabetes Association (2020) serves as a comprehensive guideline, outlining the significance and functionality of lifestyle interventions in treating type 2 diabetes. This underscores the importance of the ‘Intervention’ component of the PICO(T) question and validates the choice of intervention. Investigations like Zou et al. (2021) and Yang et al. (2023) underscore the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on long-term diabetes management and lowering HbA1C levels. The congruence among sources regarding the benefit of lifestyle interventions indicates the potential for positive outcomes, supporting the utility of the PICO(T) question focusing on dietary changes and physical activity.


    In conclusion, the PICO (T) framework is a vital strategy for formulating research questions and directing an evidence-based approach to healthcare issues. This method enables the precise definition of patient problems, intervention, comparison, and outcomes, facilitating efficient literature searches and the application of relevant information. Utilizing evidence-based practice, such as PICO (T), helps translate research findings into meaningful clinical practices, leading to improved patient outcomes and healthcare efficiency. It underscores the importance of selecting credible sources, interpreting findings, and applying these to clinical decision-making.


    American Diabetes Association. (2020). Standards of medical care in diabetes-2020 abridged for primary care providers. Clinical Diabetes, 38(1), 10–38.

    Lowe, M. S., Macy, K. V., Murphy, E., & Kani, J. (2021). Questioning Craap. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 21(3).

    NURS FPX 4030 Assessment 3 Picot Questions and an Evidence Based Approach

    Yang, J., Xia, Y., Sun, Y., Guo, Y., Shi, Z., do Vale Moreira, N. C., Zuo, H., & Hussain, A. (2023). Effect of lifestyle intervention on HbA1c levels in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes across ethnicities: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice,110662.

    Zou, X., Zhou, X., Zhu, Z., Ji, L., Zhang, H., Lascar, N.,Chiasson, J. L. (2020). Development of models to predict 10-30-year cardiovascular disease risk using the Da Qing Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes Study. Journal of Diabetes, 13(1), 52-66.