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NURS FPX 8045 Assessment 6 Synthesis of the Evidence: Substantiating an Intervention for Obesity

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    NURS FPX 8045 Assessment 6 Synthesis of the Evidence: Substantiating an Intervention for Obesity

    Student Name

    Capella University

    NURS-FPX 8045 Doctoral Writing and Professional Practice

    Prof. Name

    Date

    Synthesis of the Evidence: Substantiating an Intervention for Obesity

    Obesity is a significant public health concern, affecting 42% of adults and resulting in substantial healthcare spending, reaching $3.8 trillion in 2019 (State of Nevada, 2021). Despite being acknowledged as a chronic disease, obesity continues to be underdiagnosed and undertreated (Caterson et al., 2019). This study explores the impact of screening for readiness to change, introducing a weight loss bundle with diet and exercise education, and conducting monthly check-ins for obese female patients during a primary care clinic office visit at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. The intervention’s effect on weight loss education compliance will be assessed (American Diabetic Association, 2021; Sutton, 2022; ElSayed et al., 2022; Gaesser & Angadi, 2021; Lin & Li, 2021; Ruban et al., 2019; Samuel N & Megan, 2019; Wyatt, 2018).

    Critical Review of the Literature

    The American Diabetic Association (2021) underscores the importance of assessing patients’ readiness for behavioral changes in weight loss. The transtheoretical model, comprising pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance stages, provides a framework for understanding and promoting readiness for change (Sutton, 2022). ElSayed et al. (2022) establish the connection between obesity and the risk of type 2 diabetes, supporting the feasibility of long-term weight loss.

    Gaesser & Angadi’s (2021) meta-analysis highlights the mortality benefits associated with overweight BMI categories, offering insights into weight-neutral strategies. Lin & Li (2021) emphasize the significance of understanding the quality of food sources and nutrients in obesity management. Ruban et al. (2019) review various strategies, including dietary, pharmacological, and surgical approaches. Samuel N & Megan (2019) advocate for lifestyle counseling, diet, exercise, medications, and bariatric surgery in obesity management. Wyatt (2018) stresses the role of adherence to diet in predicting weight loss success.

    Synthesis of the Literature

    Obesity, influenced by genetic and environmental factors, demands a comprehensive approach that considers metabolic, social, cultural, behavioral, physiological, and genetic elements (American Diabetic Association, 2021; Sutton, 2022; Lin & Li, 2021). Assessing readiness for change is crucial, requiring an understanding of the benefits of behavior change (American Diabetic Association, 2021; Sutton, 2022). The use of theoretical models to screen for readiness aids in tailoring interventions (Sutton, 2022). Various interventions, such as dietary modifications, calorie restriction, macronutrient composition, meal replacement, pharmacotherapy, exercise, and bariatric surgery, contribute to obesity management (Ruban et al., 2019; Samuel N & Megan, 2019; Wyatt, 2018).

    Evaluate the Quality of the Literature

    Applying the Strength of Recommendations Table (SORT) and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) framework reveals varying levels of evidence in the literature. High-quality evidence from studies like ElSayed et al. (2022) and Gaesser & Angadi (2021) supports the feasibility and mortality benefits of weight loss interventions. Medium-grade evidence from Lin & Li (2021) underscores the role of food quality in obesity. Wyatt (2018) and Samuel N & Megan (2019) provide Level 1, SORT category A evidence, emphasizing the importance of diet adherence and the multifaceted approach to obesity management.

    Conclusion

    Obesity poses a significant health and economic crisis, affecting 42% of adults. Readiness for change and tailored interventions, including dietary modifications, physical activity, and bariatric surgery, are crucial in addressing this complex issue. The literature, characterized by varying levels of evidence, underscores the need for a comprehensive approach in managing obesity. Future studies could further explore gender-specific interventions and long-term outcomes.

    References

    American Diabetic Association. (2021). Obesity and weight management for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2022. Diabetes Care, 45(Supplement_1), S113–S124. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc22-s008

    BMJ Best Practice. (2023, January 12). What is grade? Retrieved January 14, 2023, from https://bestpractice.bmj.com/info/us/toolkit/learn-ebm/what-is-grade/

    ElSayed, N. A., Aleppo, G., Aroda, V. R., et al. (2022). Obesity and weight management for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 46(Supplement_1), S128–S139. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc23-s008

    Freeman, E. E., McMahon, D. E., Fitzgerald, M., Robinson, S., Frazer-Green, L., Hariharan, V., McMillen, A., Malik, S., Cornelius, L., Pak, H. S., Cronin, T. A., Bordeaux, J. S., & Cooper, K. D. (2020). Modernizing clinical practice guidelines for the American Academy of Dermatology. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 82(6), 1487–1489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2019.12.075

    Gaesser, G. A., & Angadi, S. S. (2021). Obesity treatment: Weight loss versus increasing fitness and physical activity for reducing health risks. iScience, 24(10), 102995. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102995

    Lin, X., & Li, H. (2021). Obesity: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapeutics. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.706978

    Ruban, A., Stoenchev, K., Ashrafian, H., & Teare, J. (2019). Current treatments for obesity. Clinical Medicine, 19(3), 205–212. https://doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.19-3-205

    Samuel N, G., & Megan, W. (2019). Approach to obesity management in the primary care setting. Journal of Obesity and Weight-loss Medication, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.23937/2572-4010.1510024

    Sutton, J. (2022, October 13). How to assess and improve readiness for change. PositivePsychology.com. https://positivepsychology.com/readiness-for-change/

    Wyatt, H. R. (2018). Update on treatment strategies for obesity. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 98(4), 1299–1306. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-3115

    NURS FPX 8045 Assessment 6 Synthesis of the Evidence: Substantiating an Intervention for Obesity