Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. One of the references must come from Flamez, B. & Sheperis, C. J. (2015) and/or Sommers-Flanagan, J., & Sommers-Flanagan, R. (2007). I have also attached my discussion rubric so you can see how to make full points. Please respond to all 3 of my classmates separately with separate references for each response. You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation regarding treatment. I need this completed by 01/26/19 at 6pm.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings. Respond to your colleagues’ postings.
Respond in one or more of the following ways:
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· Ask a probing question.
· Share an insight gained from having read your colleague’s posting.
· Offer and support an opinion.
· Validate an idea with your own experience.
· Make a suggestion.
· Expand on your colleague’s posting.
1. Classmate (K. Rog)
Sex, Sexuality, Sexual Identity, and Values
Main Discussion Post
When youth share their sexual orientation with their parents, they know they must face the immediate and long-term reactions of their parents (D’Amico, Julien, Tremblay, & Chartrand, 2015). Sexual orientation is not only a difficult subject for youth but for parents as well. Managing this transition is stressful for young people because it can change the dynamic of family relationships that structure their lives (D’Amico, et al., 2015).
Sex and Sexuality Scenario
I chose to discuss case two regarding sexual orientation. Patrick is a 9 year old, African American male who is in the 4th grade at a private Christian school (Child and Adolescent Counseling Cases, n.d.). He is very smart but struggles socially as he has recently been causing a disturbance by saying one of his male classmates is his boyfriend and that he loves boys and not girls (Child and Adolescent Counseling Cases, n.d.). His parents are unable to accept this realization as it is against their spiritual beliefs, so it is very disturbing to them (Child and Adolescent Counseling Cases, n.d.). Patrick’s parents seek counseling as they feel he is acting out for attention from his classmates and that there is no way he is gay (Child and Adolescent Counseling Cases, n.d.). Patrick admits one on one in counseling that he really is gay and wants to explore his sexual orientation (Child and Adolescent Counseling Cases, n.d.).
One adverse effect for Patrick is his relationship with his parents. The coming out process can put a huge strain on family relationships and cause interparental conflict (Baiocco, Fontanesi, Santamaria, Ioverno, Marasco, Baumgartner, Willoughby, & Laghi, 2015). Patrick’s parents have very strong Christian beliefs which makes it very difficult for them to believe and accept that their child could be gay (Child and Adolescent Counseling Cases, n.d.). Parental rejection at the time of disclosure is a strong, negative event that can affect all aspects of a child’s life (Baiocco, et al., 2015). Patrick’s desire to be open and honest about who he is can cause his parents to feel uncomfortable as well as treat him differently based on their decision to believe he is just acting out and that it is impossible for him to be gay (Child and Adolescent Counseling Cases, n.d.). The negative consequences of rejecting reactions from parents range from depression, substance abuse, and even suicide (Baiocco, et al., 2015).
Another adverse effect for Patrick is how he navigates through school as a young, openly gay, minority male. Harassment and victimization that targets sexual and gender minority youth is common and detrimental (Newman, Fantus, Woodford, & Rwigema, 2018). School climate can be influenced by homophobic or stigmatizing attitudes among both students and staff (Rose, Sheremenko, Rasberry, Lesesne, & Adkins, 2018). Faith based educational schools are often viewed as toxic environments for sexual and gender minority youth (Newman, et al., 2018). School controls that are put in place that are centered on religious-based beliefs of what is right and acceptable can result in a lack of acceptance which can contribute to social exclusion (Newman, et al., 2018). Religious and culturally based rejection can lead to internalized stigma and other stressors (Newman, et al., 2018). Perceived discrimination related to sexual orientation accounted for increased depressive symptoms, elevated risk for self-harm and suicide (Rose, et al., 2018). These negative reactions and connotations to Patrick’s sexual orientation can lead to a rapid decline in his mental and emotional health.
One way that I would show support to Patrick is to encourage him to discuss his feelings more openly in counseling. In order to get him to do so, it is important for Patrick to feel comfortable and safe in the counseling environment. The therapeutic alliance is a critical aspect in explaining why youth have such variability in counseling treatment outcomes (Karver, DeNadai, Monahan, & Shirk, 2018). Forming an alliance includes earning trust and establishing confidentiality by paying close attention to the youth’s perspective, showing empathy so that the client feels understood, seeing value in their statements, and showing support for the client (Karver, et al., 2018). This will help give Patrick the confidence to further explore his sexual orientation without feeling attacked or judged. It is also important for me as a counselor to make adjustments in the alliance formation as needed based on the mismatch between the parents’ perspective and Patrick’s (Karver, et al., 2018).
One way that I would ensure my personal values would not interfere with the counseling process is to be aware of my biases towards sexual orientation. Counselors need to sustain a strong level of self-awareness, so they can avoid trying to sway clients towards their specific beliefs, values, and needs (Remley & Herlihy, 2016). Conscious awareness of one’s actions, intentions, motives, emotions, thoughts, and feelings are an important goal for any counselor (Pompeo & Levitt, 2014). Self-awareness is a foundation for thoughtfully providing decisions and taking actions (Pompeo & Levitt, 2014). It is imperative that I keep Patrick’s needs and concerns at the forefront of the counseling process. Remaining self-aware is what will help to ensure that I do not allow my personal values and beliefs to guide the counseling process.
Sexual orientation is a very challenging issue. It is even more challenging amongst children and adolescents. When youth disclose their sexual orientation, it can negatively affect the parent-child relationship as well as school perceptions and interactions. Building a therapeutic alliance with the client is essential to showing support and empathy for what they are experiencing. While building the therapeutic alliance, counselors should ensure that they remain self-aware of any personal biases that they have about the issues being discussed so that they can remain effective in helping the client work through their issues.
Baiocco, R., Fontanesi, L., Santamaria, F., Ioverno, S., Marasco, B., Baumgartner, E., Laghi, F. (2015). Negative parental responses to coming out and family functioning in a sample of lesbian and gay young adults. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(5), 1490–1500. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1007/s10826-014-9954-z
D, amico, E., Julien, D., Tremblay, N., & Chartrand, E. (2015). Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths Coming Out to Their Parents: Parental Reactions and Youths’ Outcomes. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 11(5), 411–437. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1080/1550428X.2014.981627
Document:Child and Adolescent Counseling Cases: Sex, Sexuality. and Substance Abuse
Karver, M. S., De Nadai, A. S., Monahan, M., & Shirk, S. R. (2018). Meta-analysis of the prospective relation between alliance and outcome in child and adolescent psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 55(4), 341–355. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/pst0000176
Newman, P. A., Fantus, S., Woodford, M. R., & Rwigema, M.-J. (2018). “Pray That God Will Change You”: The Religious Social Ecology of Bias-Based Bullying Targeting Sexual and Gender Minority Youth–A Qualitative Study of Service Providers and Educators. Journal of Adolescent Research, 33(5), 523–548. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1186920&site=eds-live&scope=site
Pompeo, A. M., & Levitt, D. H. (2014). A Path of Counselor Self-Awareness. Counseling & Values, 59(1), 80–94. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1002/j.2161-007X.2014.00043.x
Remley, T. P., Jr., & Herlihy, B. (2016). Ethical, legal, and professional issues in counseling (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Rose, I. D., Sheremenko, G., Rasberry, C. N., Lesesne, C. A., & Adkins, S. N. H. (2018). Sex Differences in School Safety and Bullying Experiences among Sexual Minority Youth. Journal of School Nursing, 34(4), 301–309. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1185138&site=eds-live&scope=site
2. Classmate (A. Mor)
Patrick’s Sexual Orientation
I chose to speak about 9-year-old Patrick who is extremely intelligent and very successful in his school work. Patrick grew up in a Christian household and his parents are very passionate on what they believe in. According to Patrick’s parents and teachers, he has always had a struggle in the social domain. Just recently there was an incident that has been very difficult for Patrick’s parents to deal with. While in class Patrick has told his teachers and students for his love for boys and that there was another student in the class that is his boyfriend. Patrick’s parents have brought Patrick into counseling to “straighten” him out and are very dominant of their wishes to end this “episode” of acting out. While alone with Patrick, we find out that Patrick feels that he is gay. The hard part is understanding if the counselor should help him explore his sexual orientation with his parents being on the fence.
Receiving the acceptance from his parents will play a huge role in how he explores his sexuality and even his behavior (Ryan, 2009). If he feels that he is not accepted or wanted in his household, this could possibly go into a sense of rebellion or depression because Patrick knows how he feels (Ryan, 2009). The Family Acceptance project shows that family acceptance and rejection can affect the health, mental health, and wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth (Ryan, 2009).
Being the fact that Patrick’s family is Christian, it plays a huge role in control of his thoughts, behaviors, and mindset (Page, Lindahl, & Malik, 2013). When it comes to religion and children, it can be a struggle because some parents force religion on to their kids, instead of letting them choose or research it themselves (Page, Lindahl, & Malik, 2013). Although religion is usually associated with positive psychosocial outcomes for adolescents, sexual minority youth feel rejected by their religion or may cease practicing a religion due to conflict with their sexual minority status (Page, Lindahl, & Malik, 2013). It can also make you feel that something is wrong with you. With the parents not showing interest in his exploration of his sexuality, it shows that they are ashamed and they can feel a sense of harassment and victimization (Page, Lindahl, & Malik, 2013). Most children want to make their parents proud of them.
One way that I could support Patrick is by bringing in psychoeducation. I want to allow Patrick to get an understanding of how he is feeling and this will also allow the parents to understand what is going on. There has been research for the past 20 years that shows that sexual orientation, a person’s emotional connection and attraction to another person, develops early (Ryan, 2009). There is actually a Family Acceptance Project that was started in 2002 that provides interventions, community research, and education (Ryan, 2009). This project has been seen to help diverse families decrease rejection and provide support, strengthen families, and develop a new family-related model of prevention and care for LGBT children and adolescents (Ryan, 2009).
Discussing Person Values
This would truly would be hard to me because I understand that the way Patrick’s parents respond to this can really break him if not handled well (Page, Lindahl, & Malik, 2013). In order to make sure that my personal values do not get in the way of this, I would conduct research in regards to parents working with their child and their sexual identity. I feel that as a counselor, it is always great to continue to learn. I could attend webinars, sessions, and even classes to help me to continue my practice. The Family Acceptance project speaks about there being lots of events where I can of course go to learn, interact, and have a different insight (Ryan, 2009).
Walden University. (2019). Child and Adolescent Counseling Cases: Sex, Sexuality, and
Ryan, C. (2009). Helping Families Support their Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender
Page, M., Lindahl, K., & Malik N. (2013). The Role of Religion and Stress in Sexual Identity
and Mental Health Among LGB Youth.
3. Classmate (N. Pra)
4. LGBT adolescents are two times more likely to have been physically-assaulted by their peers. 26% are fearful of coming out to their parents and friends (Human Rights Campaign, 2018). These statistics are something that should not be ignored, especially by the counseling community. It is our job to embrace, and advocate for our clients, ensuring their success in their mental health and in their life.
5. Case Scenario #2
6. The case scenario I choose was of Patrick, a nine year old, African-American who is discovering his sexuality. Patrick, who comes from a strong Christian familial background, has begun saying that he has a boyfriend in one of his classes at a private Christian-based school. His parents have expressed a lack of support toward their son’s alleged orientation, and believes that Patrick is seeking attention. They are bringing him to counseling in hopes that he straightens out his priorities. The client expresses that he loves boys, and has been reported to struggle with social interactions.
7. Adverse Effects
8. The first area that would be influenced would be an individual’s parents or guardians. Patrick’s family identify as Christian and send him to a private Christian school to study. Statistically, those who identify as LGBT+ and come from a religious family report having the least amount of acceptance. Acceptance is a determinant of an individual’s positive self-esteem and general health (Ryan, Russell, Huebner, Diaz, & Sanchez, 2010). In a worst case situation, a parent who rejects their LGBT+ child may kick them out of the house (or the child may leave in response to physical or verbal violence). Approximately 40% of LGBT youth make up the homeless population (of over a million). On the streets, many face the dangers of drugs, prostitution, and further violence (Lolai, 2015).
9. The second area of influence is school. In this case scenario with Patrick, this is a very important factor also. Adolescent students can be very homophobic, and create a hostile environment for their peers. Teenagers can assume, and create pre-conceived notions about certain aspects of the LGBT+ culture, and this can turn into hateful comments and behaviors. This hate often places the receiving individual on a spiral of depression and anxiety (Horn, 2006). Patrick has already found himself the center of attention and upheaval amongst his peers after stating that he has a boyfriend.
11. The first step that I would offer would be tailored toward Patrick’s family and their acceptance to their son’s sexuality. I would like to use the Circumplex Model and address the family’s cohesion and adaptability. Using this information, I would hope to establish a balance that would involve the acceptance of having a gay son, and moving forward with this fact. The family has a rigid set of ideals currently, and this could prove to be a negative outcome for the success and happiness of Patrick (Reeves, Horne, Rostosky, Riggle, Baggett, & Aycock, 2010). In addition to working with the family, I would like to work with Patrick individually. Discovering one’s sexuality can be a very scary experience, and since he is still so young, I would like to work with him one on one to develop his own identity and positive self-esteem.
12. Personal Values
13. My personal values support the LGBT+ community, thus I would be supportive and open to Patrick’s particular situation. The only area of counseling interference that I may find myself in would be towards Patrick’s parents and their lack of acceptance. As a counselor remaining impartial and objective when helping a client and/or their family along in the counseling process is very crucial. In my interactions with his parents I would have to maintain an approach that would not signify anything less than an ethical counselor. To accomplish this, I hope to keep self-aware of my beliefs, and to keep an open rapport with my supervisor to discuss limitations, concerns, and advice when handling difficult situations.
15. Horn, S. S. (2006). Heterosexual adolescents’ and young adults’ beliefs and attitudes about homosexuality and gay and lesbian peers . Cognitive Development, 21(4), 420–440.
Human Rights Campaign. (2018). Growing Up LGBT in America. Retrieved from https://www.hrc.org/youth-report/view-and-share-statistics
Lolai, D. (2015). “You’re Going To Be Straight or You’re Not Going To Live Here”: Child Support for LGBT Homeless Youth. Law & Sexuality: A Review of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Legal Issues, 24, 35–98. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=qth&AN=102109711&site=eds-live&scope=site Reeves, T. Horne, S. G., Rostosky, S. S, Riggle, E. D. B., Baggett, L. R., & Aycock, R. A. (2010). Family members’ support for GLBT issues: The role of family adaptability and cohesion . Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 6(1), 80–97.
Ryan, C., Russell, S. T., Huebner, D., Diaz, R., & Sanchez, J. (2010). Family acceptance in adolescence and the health of LGBT young adults . Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(4), 205–213.
Bottom of Form
- Flamez, B. & Sheperis, C. J. (2015). Diagnosing and treating children and adolescents: A guide for clinical and school settings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
o Chapter 15 “Gender Dysphoria”
o Chapter 17 “Substance-related Disorders”
- Hermann, M. A., & Herlihy, B. R. (2006). Legal and ethical implications of refusing to counsel homosexual clients. Journal of Counseling & Development,84(4), 414–418. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
- Horn, S. S. (2006). Heterosexual adolescents’ and young adults’ beliefs and attitudes about homosexuality and gay and lesbian peers . Cognitive Development, 21(4), 420–440. © 2006 by ELSEVIER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY JOURNALS. Reprinted by permission of ELSEVIER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY JOURNALS via the Copyright Clearance Center. Reeves, T. Horne, S. G., Rostosky, S. S, Riggle, E. D. B., Baggett, L. R., & Aycock, R. A. (2010). Family members’ support for GLBT issues: The role of family adaptability and cohesion . Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 6(1), 80–97. © 2010 by TAYLOR & FRANCIS INFORMA UK LTD. Reprinted by permission of TAYLOR & FRANCIS INFORMA UK LTD. via the Copyright Clearance Center.
- Ryan, C., Russell, S. T., Huebner, D., Diaz, R., & Sanchez, J. (2010). Family acceptance in adolescence and the health of LGBT young adults . Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(4), 205–213. © 2010 by BLACKWELL PUBLISHING. Reprinted by permission of BLACKWELL PUBLISHING via the Copyright Clearance Center.
- Document:Child and Adolescent Counseling Cases: Sex, Sexuality. and Substance Abuse
- Document:Treatment Plan Guidelines
- DSM-5 BridgeDocument:Sex, Sexuality, and Substance Abuse
- Burrow-Sanchez, J. J. (2006). Understanding adolescent substance abuse: Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical implications. Journal of Counseling & Development, 84(3), 283–290. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
- Castellanos-Ryan, N., O’Leary-Barrett, M., & Conrod, P. (2013). Substance use in childhood and adolescence: A brief overview of developmental processes and the clinical implications. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(1), 41–46. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
- Lemoire, S. J., & Chen, C. P. (2005). Applying person-centered counseling to sexual minority adolescents. Journal of Counseling & Development, 83(2), 146–154. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
- Tan, E. S. N., & Yarhouse, M. A. (2010). Facilitating congruence between religious beliefs and sexual identity with mindfulness. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(4), 500–511. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.